While learning the methods of voltage control in power system, we must first understand why we need to control voltage. In power systems, voltage is supposed to be constant which is obviously not. So we have to control it in such a way that it remains constant. But why does the voltage need to be constant at all? Because most of the devices, apparatus, electrical machines, consumer appliances etc. are all designed to work at a specified voltage. Wide variations of voltage may cause errors in operation, malfunctioning or performance deterioration. It is desirable that the consumers receive power at substantially constant voltage. In many countries, including India, the statutory limit of voltage variation is ±6% of the declared voltage at consumers’ end.
Therefore, it is important to apply certain techniques, certain methods to control the power system voltage to keep it constant. Following are the methods of voltage control in power system.
Methods of Voltage Control In Power System
- Using excitation control or voltage regulators at generating stations
- By using tap changing transformers
- Using induction regulators
- By using shunt reactors
- By using shunt capacitors
- Using synchronous condensers